The ‘Grágás’ is the name given to a collection of laws dating from the Icelandic Commonwealth period (between 980 and 1262). These were originally oral laws, a third of which would be recited at each annual meeting of the Alþingi – the Iceland national parliament – over a three year period. In 1117 were they written down, but by the Middle Ages they still only existed in two (sometimes contradictory) manuscript fragments. The laws of the Icelandic Commonwealth were being described as the ‘Grey Goose Laws’ by the 16th century – possibly because the original manuscripts were written with goose-feather quills or bound in goose skin.
The complete laws can be categorised into six main sections:
- Christian Laws
- Assembly Procedures
- Treatment of Homicide
- The Wergild Ring List
- The Lawspeaker’s Section
- The Law Council Section
At Aberystwyth we have an early complete volume of the Grágás laws, published (not on anything goose-related) in 1829 with an introduction and notes by the Danish lawyer and academic J.F.W. Schlegel (1765-1836). Schlegel was a professor of jurisprudence at Copenhagen University from 1800, and was the first person in Denmark to study and then teach the philosophy of Kant (in relation to natural law).
This volume also includes a bookplate that tells us a little about its provenance:
This tells us that the volume was previously in the private library of Friedrich August Ferdinand Breymann (1798-1863), Supreme Court Judge of Wolfenbüttel in Germany. When he died, this volume, along with over 4700 others, were bequeathed to the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel.